Selected publications

•    Micallef, M., Herbert, M., Horsley, R., Bish, A., Fereday A. & Tinti P. (2021). Conflict, Coping and Covid:  Changing human smuggling and trafficking dynamics in North Africa and the Sahel in 2019 and 2020, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, April 2021. https://bit.ly/3b9fwVQ

 

•    Bish, A. (2021) Déby’s death will fuel instability and criminal opportunity in the Sahel. The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, 23 Apr 2021. https://bit.ly/3utqtt0

•    Bish, A. (2021) Imprisonment for defamation seeks to silence investigative journalism in Niger. The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, 25 Jan 2021. https://bit.ly/3h6SrGQ

•    Bish, A. (2019) Niger: Has Securitisation Stopped Traffickers? Italian Institute of International Political Studies (ISPI), September 2019. https://bit.ly/3aYfbmL


•    Bish, A. (2019) The second coming of West Africa’s cocaine trade? The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, March 2019. https://bit.ly/34p6Wxq


•    Bish, A. (2019) From Resolutions to Responses: Organized crime and the UN Security Council, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, June 2019. https://bit.ly/2xf9MJa


•    Micallef, M. Horsley R. & Bish, A. (2019) The Human Conveyor Belt Broken – assessing the collapse of the human-smuggling industry in Libya and the central Sahel, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, March 2019. https://bit.ly/3c2iwkP


•    Micallef, M., Farrah, R, Bish, A. & Tanner, V. (2019) After the Storm: Organized crime across the Sahel-Sahara following upheaval in Libya and Mali, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, November 2019. https://bit.ly/2JRFcrN
 

 

Selected reporting available upon request

'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara’ is a project funded under the North Africa window of the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa. Its goals are to create an expansive research facility that provides the EU and its partners with up-to-date monitoring and analysis of migration patterns and human smuggling dynamics in Libya and the Sahel (Niger, Chad and Mali). This takes the form of monthly briefs and regular in-depth, long-form research studies. The project is implemented by a consortium consisting of the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime and the Clingendael Institute. I was the lead researcher for the monitoring on Niger and Chad. Each of the 27 monthly reports included on average 5000-7000 words of granular information and analysis informed by interviews with our field network of contacts as well as targeted fieldwork conducted by local researchers.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', October 2018

Niger: Deteriorating IDP situation on Mali border increases smuggling.

Chad: Continued conflict in Tibesti disrupts migratory flows.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', November 2018

Niger: Tebu rebels close to signing peace deal with government.

Chad: Reduced migratory flows continue towards Libya.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', December 2018

Niger: Migrant-smuggling industry shrinks and adapts to new normal.

Chad: The rise and potential fall of gold mines as Sahelian transit hubs.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', January 2019

Niger: Focus on Maradi, frontier of insecurity, smuggling and trafficking on the Nigerian border.

Chad: Tibesti conflict intensifies and attracts regional players.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', February 2019

Niger: Recent arrests in Agadez deal temporary blow to migrant-smuggling industry.

Niger: Nigerien rebels surrender weapons to authorities in Madama as part of peace deal.

Chad: Rebel incursion in eastern Chad escalates clampdown on Tiné, key transport hub on Sudan border.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', March 2019

Niger: Tahoua emerges as departure point for smugglers operating on Western Mediterrenean route.

Chad: Crackdown on Kouri Bougoudi comes to a head.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', April 2019

Niger: Government sells seized vehicles back to ex-passeurs in Agadez. 

Chad: Tiné smugglers start recovering from crackdown.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', May 2019

Niger: Human-trafficking networks consolidate operations in Agadez.

Chad: Young migrants fleeing Kouri Bougoudi shed light on mercenary trade.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', June 2019

Niger: Agadez migration industry repurposed for Nigerien migrants seeking work in Libya.

Chad: Six-month overview and state of play of migrant-smuggling dynamics.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', July 2019

Niger: Six-month overview and state of play of migrant-smuggling dynamics.

Chad: Focus on Faya-Largeau, key northern smuggling hub.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', August 2019

Niger: Changing payment systems on migrant journeys from Agadez to Sebha.

Chad: Pressure intensifies on Tibesti goldfields.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', September 2019​

Niger: Arrests on Agadez-Dirkou trade convoy.

Niger: Floods and border closure affect flows in August and early September.

Chad: Government tightens its grip on eastern Chad.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', October 2019

Niger: Police crack down on new flow of Egyptian migrants to Libya.

Chad: Reinforced security presence in north and east hampers flows to Libya.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', November 2019

Niger: Zinder consolidates as departure point on central Mediterranean route.

Chad: Preliminary peace agreement reached after year-long military embargo on Miski gold mine.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', December 2019

Niger: Authorities loosen grip on smuggling but transit migration remains contained.

Chad: Sustained clampdowns disrupt smuggling and disperse migrants.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', January 2020

Niger: Smuggling activity targeting Nigerien migrants travelling to Libya decreases in January.

Niger: Protesting Sudanese asylum seekers burn down reception centre in Agadez.

Chad: Miski peace deal revives smuggling flows in Tibesti.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', February 2020

Niger: Focus on migratory and smuggling dynamics at the Algerian border.

Chad: Rebel incursion blocks flows through Kouri Bougoudi.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', March 2020

Niger: COVID-19 preliminary update

Niger: Pakistani migration through Agadez - the long route to Europe.

Chad: COVID-19 preliminary update.

Chad: Miners forced out of Miski after Déby visits goldfield.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', April 2020

Niger: COVID-19 disrupts migrant smuggling but passeurs adapt.

Chad: Migrant smuggling continues despite COVID-19 travel ban.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', May 2020

Niger: Passeurs adapt to new normal.

Chad: Migrant smuggling slows slightly during Ramadan.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', June 2020

Niger: Djado re-emerges as a migrant transit hub.

Chad: Mercenaries and migrants repopulate Kouri Bougoudi goldfield.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', July 2020

Niger: Focus on smuggling dynamics in Arlit.

Chad: Focus on Koutéré, key border crossing with Cameroon.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', August 2020

Niger: Six-month overview and state of play of migrant-smuggling dynamics.

Chad: State of play of migrant-smuggling since COVID-19 outbreak.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', September 2020​

Niger: Floods and insecurity affect smuggling flows.

Chad: Smuggling flows targeting Tibesti goldfields continue despite floods.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', October 2020

Niger: Closure of Benin border boosts migrant-smuggling economy.

Chad: Fear of crackdown stalls human-smuggling flows to Tibesti goldfields.

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', November 2020

Niger: Migration of Nigeriens to Libya turns clandestine.*

Chad: Gold miners defy government ban at Kouri Bougoudi goldfield.*

•    'Monitoring the Political Economy of Human Smuggling in Libya and the Greater Sahara', December 2020

Niger: COVID-19 deals smuggling industry a blow after recovery from law enforcement campaign.

Chad: Gold mining and mercenaries keep smuggling industry in business.

Selected speaking engagements

•    Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung: Sudan and Libya: Geopolitics and Conflict Linkages

Panellist (via Zoom, London, 25 March 2021)

Presentation: The dynamics around Chadian mercenaries and their return to Central Sahara. https://bit.ly/3h7Nn5k

•    American Society of Criminology annual event,

Panellist (San Francisco, USA, 14 November 2019)

Presentation: Can human smuggling research yield insights into human trafficking? A case study of the Niger-Libya corridor.

https://bit.ly/2JTlLz6

 

•    USAID Counter-Trafficking in Persons Evidence Summit,

Panellist (29 and 30 October 2019, Washington D.C., USA)

Presentation: Role of passeurs in human smuggling, trafficking and terrorist dynamics in the Sahel.

Panel: Ethics of researching human trafficking – how to safeguard the ‘fixers’.https://bit.ly/34qomKb

 

•    Global Initiative and Clingendael report launch at EU Commission,

Panellist (1 April 2019, Brussels, Belgium)

Presentation: The Human Conveyor Belt Broken – Assessing the collapse of the human smuggling industry in Libya and the central Sahel.

https://bit.ly/3eaLAZi

 

•    UCL – Master’s class in Security and Crime Science module,

Guest lecturer (18 March 2019 and 19 March 2020, London, UK)

Two-hour lecture: Preventing and Disrupting Organised Crime and Terrorism in Conflict Zones.

 

•    Invité Afrique – Radio France International, Interviewee (7 February 2019 Valetta, Malta)

Rebelles de l’UFR frappé par la France: «Pourquoi aucune force armée tchadienne ne les a arrêtés?»

https://bit.ly/39VxQ1b

 

•    Danish Refugee Council & Mixed Migration Centre annual event,

Panellist (9 November 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark)

Presentation: How human smugglers use, shape and create migrant aspirations.https://bit.ly/2wwXewE

•    Podcast: Human Smuggling and COVID-19 - The Impact: Coronavirus and Organized Crime by the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

https://bit.ly/3q0QRIe